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Sunday, March 18, 2012

Gk exam ready notes 16self-evaluation and facts

Some Points are hidden as part of quiz exercise. use mouse to highlight text and see the complete answer and self-evaluate
1.  The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from the Constitutions of various countries as well as from the GOI Act, 1935.
2.  Government of India Act 1935 - The Federal Scheme, Office of the Governor, Role of federal judiciary, Emergency provisions.
3.  UK Constitution - Law making procedures, Parliamentary Government, Rule of Law, Single Citizenship, Cabinet System, Parliamentary Privileges and Bicameralism.
4.  US Constitution - Fundamental Rights, Independent judiciary, Judicial review, Procedure for the removal of the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Role of Vice President.
5.  Canadian Constitution - Federal system, Federation with strong centre, Residuary powers in the centre.
6.  Irish Constitution - Directive Principles of State Policy, The method of the presidential election, Nominating members of Rajya Sabha.
7.  Weimar Constitution of Germany - Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency.
8.  Australian Constitution - Principle of co-operative federalism, Freedom of inter-state trade, commerce and intercourse, Concurrent list, Joint Sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
9.  Constitution of South Africa - Procedure for amendment of the Constitution, Election of members of the Rajya Sabha.
10.Japanese Constitution ? Procedure established by Law.
11.The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business, came into being in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
12.The World Bank was created in 1945. It works for human development (education, health), agriculture and rural development (irrigation, rural services), environmental protection (pollution reduction), infrastructure (roads, urban regeneration, and electricity) and governance (anti-corruption, development of legal institutions).
13.UNESCO purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
14.The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an intergovernmental organization that promotes international economic cooperation, focusing in particular on policies that have an impact on the exchange rate and the balance of payments.
15.United Nations Children's Fund was created in 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. It provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
16.The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. It acts as a source of knowledge and information to help in modernizing and improving agriculture, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.
17.WHO is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.
18.The ILO is the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labour standards.
19.The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
20.The origin and growth of the idea of the Constituent Assembly as a representative body for formulating the fundamental law of the country first proposed in Nehru Report of 1928.
21.The Constituent Assembly was constituted in November 1946 under the scheme of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
22.The total numbers of the seats in the proposed Constituent Assembly were to be 389; 296 seats were allotted to British India and 93 seats to the Princely States.
23.The election for the Constituent Assembly held in July-August 1946 in which the 93 seats allotted to the Princely States remained vacant as they decided to stay away from the Constituent Assembly.
24.The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on December 9, 1946 headed by Dr. Sachidanand Sinha as a temporary President of the assembly.
25.The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was boycotted by the Muslim League and they insisted on the formation of Pakistan.
26.On December 11, 1946 Dr. Rajendra Prasad and H.C Mukherjee were elected as the President and Vice-President of the assembly respectively.
27.The 'Objective Resolution' by J.L.Nehru in 1946 laid down the fundamentals and philosophy of the constitutional structure of India.
28.B.N Rai was appointed as the Constitutional Advisor to the Constituent Assembly.
29.The Constituent Assembly took two years, eleven months and eighteen days for the formulation of the Constitution and finally the Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

THE COLD WAR TIMELINE


1947 American President Harry Truman’s Doctrine
about the containment of communism
1947 - 52 Marshall Plan: US aid for the reconstruction of
the Western Europe
1948 - 49 Berlin blockade by the Soviet Union and the
airlift of supplies to the citizens of West Berlin
by the US and its allies
1950 - 53 Korean War; division of Korea along the 38th
Parallel
1954 Defeat of the French by the Vietnamese at
Dien Bien Phu
Signing of the Geneva Accords
Division of Vietnam along the 17th Parallel
Formation of SEATO
1954 - 75 American intervention in Vietnam
1955 Signing of the Baghdad Pact, later CENTO
1956 Soviet intervention in Hungary
1961 US-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba
Construction of the Berlin Wall
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1965 American intervention in the Dominican
Republic
1968 Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia
1972 US President Richard Nixon’s visit to China
1978 - 89 Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia
1979 - 89 Soviet intervention in Afghanistan
1985 Gorbachev becomes the President of the
USSR; begins the reform process
1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall; mass protests against
governments in eastern Europe
1990 Unification of Germany
1991 Disintegration of the Soviet Union
End of the Cold War era


ARMS CONTROL TREATIES
LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY (LTBT)
Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water.
Signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963.
Entered into force on 10 October 1963.
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT)
Allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from
aquiring them. For the purposes of the NPT, a nuclear weapon state is one which has
manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1
January 1967. So there are five nuclear weapon states: US, USSR (later Russia), Britain, France
and China. Signed in Washington, London, and Moscow on 1 July 1968.
Entered into force on 5 March 1970. Extended indefinitely in 1995.
STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TALKS I (SALT-I)
The first round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in November 1969. The Soviet
leader Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Richard Nixon signed the following in Moscow
on 26 May 1972 – a) Treaty on the limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM Treaty); and
b) Interim Agreement on the limitation of strategic offensive arms.
Entered into force on 3 October 1972.
STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TALKS II (SALT-II)
The second round started in November 1972. The US President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet
leader Leonid Brezhnev signed the Treaty on the limitation of strategic offensive arms in Vienna
on 18 June 1979.
STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY I (START-I)
Treaty signed by the USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and the US President George Bush (Senior)
on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31 July 1991.
STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY II (START-II)
Treaty signed by the Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the US President George Bush (Senior)
on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 3 January 1993.



The idea of a New Inter -national Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to: (i) give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries, (ii) obtain access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and, therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries, (iii) reduce the cost of technology from the Western countries, and (iv) provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.


more facts are invited ..................